Background: Although the role of monitoring and evaluation (M&E) in enhancing evidencebased management in development work is increasingly recognised, M&E remains underutilised as a vital tool in informing climate change mitigation and adaptation interventions in many developing countries. Practitioners in climate change mitigation and adaptation interventions are yet to exploit M&E to enhance effectiveness of their programmes. Objectives: This article underscores the critical role that M&E can and should play in enhancing effectiveness of climate change mitigation and adaptation interventions in developing countries. It provides a scholarly look at M&E and its visibility in climate change mitigation and adaptation work, the evidence of its role in mitigation and adaptation interventions across developing nations and the missing gaps in utilisation of M&E for mitigation and adaptation. This article presents key insights that practitioners need to design effective M&E systems for climate change mitigation and adaptation. Methods: The article was compiled based on Cooper’s stages of literature review 1984. A total of 15 peer-reviewed articles, a few eBooks and hard copy textbooks as well as reports from credible international organisations that met the inclusion criteria of focus, goal and coverage on M&E and climate change mitigation and adaptation were reviewed. Results: The findings show that M&E can be used as an effective tool for learning, informing evidence-based decision-making, promoting accountability and helping organisations to improve on climate change mitigation and adaptation interventions. Conclusion: M&E if well designed and implemented can be handy and useful in informing climate change mitigation and adaptation interventions.